Health A-Z


Clinical Definition A person’s gait is a series of rhythmical alternating movements of the trunk and limbs, which result in the forward progression of the center of gravity. In Our Own Words The way in which a person walks or runs, including the speed, stride length, posture and foot movements, is referred to as his


Clinical Definition A gallstone is a crystal deposit that forms in the gallbladder or bile ducts. Gallstones vary in chemical structure and form due to imbalances in the substances that makeup bile. For example, decreased amounts of bile salts, excess cholesterol or bilirubin may lead to gallstone formation. In Our Own Words The gallbladder is


Clinical Definition Gangrene is the death of tissue in part of the body because it has lost its blood supply as the result of injury, infection or other causes. Gas gangrene, a severe form that can progress rapidly and become lethal, is caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens and is more likely to affect those with underlying

Gastric bypass

Clinical Definition Gastric bypass is a surgical intervention for obese patients or for patients with combination of a higher BMI and an obesity-related health problem such as uncontrollable type 2 diabetes. Of the many procedures, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most common. The surgeon creates a small pouch by dividing the upper end of


Clinical Definition Inflammation of the stomach mucosa, possibly in association with dyspepsia. Gastritis is sometimes used as a description (whether there is inflammation or not) of the lining of the stomach based on visualization during endoscopy. In Our Own Words Gastritis is an inflammation of the innermost layer of the stomach that can, in some


Clinical Definition Gastroenterology is study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, colon, rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. The science of gastroenterology involves a detailed understanding of the normal actions of the gastrointestinal organs, including movement of material through organs, digestion, waste removal and organ function. In Our Own Words Gastroenterology


Clinical Definition GERD, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a digestive disorder that causes gastric contents to reflux from the stomach back up to the esophagus, and usually occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter muscle fails to contract properly. Prolonged exposure to gastric contents can lead to complications and esophageal tissue damage, such as erosive esophagitis and Barrett’s

Gestational Diabetes

Clinical Definition Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy, when hormonal changes complicate the human pancreas’ ability to produce enough insulin for managing glucose levels. After childbirth, glucose levels usually normalize. In Our Own Words Pregnancy increases the body’s requirement for insulin, but often the pancreas will make enough extra insulin to compensate. In gestational diabetes, however,


Clinical Definition Gingivitis is inflammation of the gums caused by bacterial growth in the mouth. If not properly treated, it can progress to periodontal disease and end up destroying the tissue that supports the teeth, leading to tooth loss. In Our Own Words Gingivitis is the early stage of gum disease caused by the buildup


Clinical Definition Glaucoma is an eye disease that can lead to blindness. Often associated with higher pressures of the aqueous humor (clear fluid) that circulates inside the front part of the eye, when pressure builds, it can potentially damage the optic nerve, interfering with transmission of images to the brain. In Our Own Words Glaucoma

Gleason Score

Clinical Definition The Gleason score is a system used to classify adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A tissue sample is evaluated to determine glandular differentiation. A Gleason score may range from 2 to 10 based on the pattern of the tissue sample. A lower number indicates the tissue has a structure closer to normal prostate tissue.

Glucose Meter

Clinical Definition A glucose meter is a device used by diabetics at home to test their own blood glucose levels. Readings are often taken several times daily. These data help track blood glucose control in the short term; in contrast, A1C is a laboratory test that reflects blood glucose levels over recent months, a longer-term


Clinical Definition Gonorrhea, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI), is a bacterial infection that affects both men and women. Left untreated, in women it can spread to the uterus or fallopian tubes, triggering pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and an increased risk of tubal pregnancies; in men, it can contribute to epididymitis and sometimes scarring and


Clinical Definition A form of arthritis marked by acute and severe attacks of pain, inflammation and redness in the joints, gout commonly affects the big toe and is due to elevated levels of uric acid in the blood and the deposition of urate crystals around the joints. Uric acid is a byproduct of the breakdown

Grand Mal Seizure

Clinical Definition A grand mal seizure is a generalized seizure, involving both sides of the brain and loss of consciousness. It is characterized by two main phases, including the tonic phase and the clonic phase. The tonic phase consists of the sudden onset of muscle rigidity. The seizure then progresses into the clonic phase, which

Graves’ Disease

Clinical Definition Graves’ disease is a syndrome in which the sufferer has a thyroid gland that produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormone. This thyroid hormone controls bodily functions such as digestion, metabolism, body temperature and heart rate. In Our Own Words The thyroid gland, at the front of the neck, is crucial in regulating heart

Gum Disease

Clinical Definition Gum disease, also known as periodontal disease, is an inflammatory response of the gingiva to bacteria. It occurs due to a buildup of plaque and tartar on the teeth. The condition is one of the leading causes of tooth loss in adults. In Our Own Words Gum disease is a very common condition,


Clinical Definition Gynecomastia is an abnormal development of the mammary glands in males. The condition is different from an enlarged breast area due to obesity and an increase in adipose tissue. Gynecomastia is usually benign and may develop unilaterally or bilaterally. In Our Own Words Gynecomastia is the abnormal enlargement of breasts in men or

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