Health A-Z

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Clinical Definition Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a cardiac condition that causes a weakening of the left ventricle. It is usually precipitated by a severe emotional stressor. The theory is adrenaline, which is produced in response to stress, may trigger a change in the coronary arteries of the myocardium. The change reduces the efficiency of the left


Clinical Definition Tendinitis is the inflammatory response or microscopic tearing of fibrosis tissue, which connects the muscle to bone. This condition is often due to repetitive motions, and is a common cause of soft tissue pain and strain. In Our Own Words Tendinitis is the irritation or inflammation of any tendon in the body, and

Tension Headache

Clinical Definition Tension headaches, sometimes called tension-type headaches, are the most prevalent type of head pain experienced by adults. Patients vary with frequency of symptoms, and the pain may be mild or moderate and feel like a band of pressure squeezing the head. In Our Own Words Tension headaches, or tension-type headaches, are not migraines,

Testicular Cancer

Clinical Definition Testicular cancer originates in the testicles, usually affecting a single testicle. Risk factors include having an undescended testicle, Klinefelter’s syndrome, being of Caucasian race and having a family history of testicular cancer. Scrotal edema, testicular lumps or swelling and groin aches are possible symptoms. Diagnosis is by ultrasound, serum tumor markers and physical


Clinical Definition A thromboembolism is the occlusion of blood flow in a vessel due to a thrombus. It can occur if a fragment of a thrombus travels through the bloodstream from the original site of formation and lodges in a blood vessel. The thrombus obstructs blood flow in the vessel. Various consequences, such as tissue death


Clinical Definition Cardiology, Emergency medicine, Internal medicine In Our Own Words Thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) either in a blood vessel or in one of the heart’s chambers. Often, this clot will develop in a vein deep in the body, called deep vein thrombosis, or DVT. Normally these clots occur

Thumb Arthritis

Clinical Definition Thumb arthritis is a musculoskeletal condition, which usually affects the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. It is usually caused by osteoarthritis. It develops when the smooth cartilage, which covers the ends of the bones, becomes thinner. This causes friction between the bones, which leads to pain and possible basal joint deformity. In Our


Clinical Definition The thyroid is a small, soft gland inferior to the larynx in the anterior of the neck. The tissue of the gland is comprised of parafollicular and follicular cells. The thyroid secretes several hormones including triiodothyronine and thyroxin, which regulates metabolic rate. Diseases of the thyroid may develop if excess or insufficient hormone


Clinical Definition Tinnitus is perceiving ringing in the ears or other sounds (such as hissing, clicking or whooshing) that have no external cause. Sufferers hear ringing, ocean waves or a frustrating variety of other sounds sometimes referred to as “head noise.” The wordtinnitus comes from Latin, originally meaning “to ring or tinkle like a bell.” Nearly


Clinical Definition Trichotillomania is an impulse control disorder that may present as alopecia with an irregular pattern. Typically affecting the scalp, it can also be evident on the eyebrows and eyelashes. Depression, anxiety and behaviors such as nail biting and skin-picking may co-exist. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and patient input. Etiology is largely


Clinical Definition Triglycerides are fatty compounds that consist of glycerol and fatty acids. They are synthesized from foods digested and circulate in the bloodstream as a cellular energy source. Excess triglycerides are stored in the adipose tissue of the body. If hypertriglyceridemia is present, it can lead to an increased risk of coronary artery disease.


Clinical Definition Tuberculosis, or TB, is caused by a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria are spread from infected persons through the air, typically tainting the lungs. However, the bacteria can also affect the kidneys, spine and brain. Skin tests and blood tests are used to detect TB infection, while medications are used to treat the debilitating disease.

Tuberous Sclerosis

Clinical Definition Tuberous sclerosis is a group of two genetic disorders with a spectrum of clinical expressions, including dermatological, neurological, renal and cardiac, and commonly accompanied by epilepsy, autism, developmental delay and skin birthmarks. Mutations in the genes TSC1 or TSC2 are responsible for most cases. Symptoms include patchy red skin or white skin, seizures,


Clinical Definition A tumor is any kind of swelling or enlargement of tissues involving abnormal growth anywhere in the body. A tumor can be cancerous or noncancerous (benign). However, benign tumors can still cause problems. In Our Own Words A tumor is an abnormal growth. Normally, cells in your body grow, divide and then die.

Type 1 Diabetes

Clinical Definition Type 1 diabetes is an endocrine-based disease that occurs when the human pancreas produces insufficient amounts of insulin, or none at all. The result is a buildup of abnormally high levels of sugar (i.e., glucose) in the blood. In Our Own Words Type 1 diabetes (formerly juvenile diabetes) is a disease of the

Type 2 Diabetes

Clinical Definition Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disease that occurs when the pancreas produces insulin; however, the insulin does not act (i.e., the body does not respond) as it should or there is not enough of it to get sugar or glucose into the cells for the body to process and use as energy.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Clinical Definition Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disease that occurs when the pancreas produces insulin, however, the insulin does not act (the body does not respond) as it should or there is not enough of it to get sugar or glucose into the cells for the body to process and use as energy. This

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