Health A-Z

Kallman Syndrome

Clinical Definition Kallman syndrome is a rare genetic condition that causes delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell. It is also a form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition that affects the production of hormones involved in sexual development. This syndrome affects males more often than females, because it is often X-linked, and

Kawasaki Disease

Clinical Definition Kawasaki disease is a febrile illness and a type of vasculitis that primarily affects children. Kawasaki disease does not appear to be contagious, and the etiology is unknown. The condition also causes inflammation of the hands and feet. Its association with vasculitis is responsible for acquired heart disease in some children. In Our

Kegel Exercises

Clinical Definition Kegel exercises are a type of pelvic floor training, which is intended to strengthen the pubococcygeal muscle. It involves the alternating contraction and relaxation of the muscles of the pelvic floor. Kegel exercises are often recommended in order to prevent urinary incontinence. In Our Own Words Kegel exercises strengthen weak pelvic floor muscles


Clinical Definition Keloids are raised, reddish (or purple) areas that form at the site of injury. In normal wound healing, fibroblasts begin multiplying to heal the wound, but in keloids, they over-multiply and continue to form irregular mounds of scar tissue. In Our Own Words Keloids are scars that form when certain cells overproduce to

Keratosis Pilaris

Clinical Definition Keratosis pilaris is a condition of the skin in which hair follicles are blocked by keratin, a protein in the skin, resulting in lesions commonly distributed on extensor aspects of the proximal limbs. Exacerbation during winter months is common. In Our Own Words Keratosis pilaris is a skin condition that looks like goose


Clinical Definition Ketones are compounds produced for energy use when the body runs out of glucose or carbohydrates; or when levels of glucose are excessively high but cannot be used or stored as glycogen in the liver, such as in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In Our Own Words When your body isn’t getting adequate energy

Kidney Cancer

Clinical Definition Kidney cancer, or renal cancer, is rarely accompanied by symptoms in the very early stages. As it progresses, various symptoms may appear, including fatigue, unexplained weight loss, blood in the urine and persistent pain in the back, just below the ribs. Treatment options include nephrectomy (i.e., kidney removal, total or partial), radiation, chemotherapy,

Kidney Failure

Clinical Definition Kidney failure is often the final stage of chronic kidney disease, and it’s the point where kidneys can no longer do their job of eliminating waste products from the body. Diabetes and hypertension can impair kidney function, leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD). When CKD develops, the focus is on managing it with

Kidney Failure

Clinical Definition Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are small, hard ”rocks” that form when chemicals in urine become so concentrated they form solid crystals. If the stones become large, they can lodge in the urinary tract, leading to blockage, infection and severe pain. Most people affected have a chemical blood abnormality or a urine abnormality


Clinical Definition Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder, still poorly understood, characterized by repeated failures to resist the impulse to steal. Once taken, the objects may be stored, given away or discarded.  A sense of tension precedes the behavior, followed by a sense of gratification. Kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, with psychotherapy

Knee Pain

Clinical Definition The knee is a complex pivotal hinge joint made up of bones, ligaments, cartilage and muscles. Knee pain is a common symptom in both children and adults. The knee joint is at the junction of the fibula, tibia and patella. Menisci separate the bones of the knees. The knee capsule encases the knee

Knee Replacement

Clinical Definition Knee replacement is an orthopedic surgery performed to replace damaged articular cartilage, loss of bone structure or ligament support. The surgery involves removing a portion of bone and replacing it with a prosthetic that can be made out of cobalt chrome, titanium or polyethylene. In Our Own Words The knee is the largest


Clinical Definition Kyphosis is a spinal curvature that is excessive, resulting in a back that is rounded abnormally. Some degree of spine curvature is normal, but kyphosis describes a backward bend in the upper back that is excessive. In some patients, the abnormal curves do not progress. However, when they do,   appearance issues and impact

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